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铝的比热容和熔化热的相关先容

来源:  发布时间:2021-03-30 13:53:21  

铝的比热容是0.88×103 J/(kg·℃), 溶点:660.37铝的熔解热是3.98×105J/kg,铝的蒸发热是1.05× 107J/kg.熔解热 单位质量的晶体物质在熔点时,从固态变成液态所吸取的热量,叫做这种物质的熔解热。
The specific heat capacity of aluminum is 0.88 × 103 J / (kg ·℃), the melting point is 660.37, the melting heat of aluminum is 3.98 × 105 J / kg, and the evaporation heat of aluminum is 1.05 × 107 J / kg.
熔解热: 单位质量晶体物质,在熔点由固相转变为液相所吸取的相变潜热。晶体的熔解是粒子由规则排列转向不规则排列的过程。这些热量就将用来反抗分子引力做功,增加分子的势能,也就是说,这时物质所吸取的热量是破坏点阵结构所需的能量,使分子的运动状态起质的变化从固态的分子热运动转变成液态的分子热运动,同时改变了物质的状态。
Melting heat: the latent heat of phase transformation absorbed by a unit mass of crystalline material when it changes from solid phase to liquid phase at the melting point. The melting of crystals is a process in which the particles change from regular arrangement to irregular arrangement. The heat will be used to resist the molecular gravity to do work and increase the potential energy of the molecule. In other words, the heat absorbed by the substance is the energy needed to destroy the lattice structure, which makes the motion state of the molecule change qualitatively from the solid molecular thermal motion to the liquid molecular thermal motion, and changes the state of the substance.


所以晶体不仅有固定的熔点,而且还需要吸取一定数量的热量来实现它的熔解。由于物质不同其晶体空间点阵结构不同,尽管各种不同物质的质量相同,但在熔解时所吸取的热量却不相同。
So the crystal not only has a fixed melting point, but also needs to absorb a certain amount of heat to achieve its melting. Due to different materials, the lattice structure of crystal space is different. Although the mass of different materials is the same, the heat absorbed during melting is different.
为表示晶体物质的这一特性,而引入熔解热。它表示单位质量的某种固态物质在熔点时完全熔解成同温度的液态物质所需要的热量;该物质在凝固时,在凝固点,也等于单位质量的同种液态物质,转变为晶体所放出的热量。
In order to express this characteristic of crystal material, the melting heat is introduced. It represents the heat required for a solid substance of unit mass to completely melt into a liquid substance at the same temperature at the melting point; when the substance solidifies, at the freezing point, it is also equal to the heat released by the same liquid substance of unit mass to transform into a crystal.
如果用λ表示物质的熔解热,m表示物质的质量,Q表示熔解时所需要吸取的热量,则 Q=λm 熔解热的单位是焦耳/克或焦耳/千克。测量熔点较高的物体的熔解热是比较困难的,但是对于熔点较低的物体,就可以用量热器来测定。
If λ is used to denote the melting heat of a substance, M is the mass of the substance, and Q is the heat to be absorbed during melting, then q = λ m, the unit of melting heat is Joule / g or Joule / kg. It is difficult to measure the melting heat of the object with high melting point, but for the object with low melting point, it can be measured by calorimeter.

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